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January 27, 2008

SSHクライアント,Poderosa・PuTTYとscreen

小生は,今までUnixのSSHクライアントとしてPuTTY(リンク先は日本語版)しか知らなかった(Tera Termってのも知っていたが使いたくなかった.なぜかは忘れた).しかし,さくらinternetのレンタルサーバーを借りるにあたってヘルプを見たら,Poderosaというのがあるらしく,なんとなく信用できそうなので使ってみた.結論としてはどっちがだめってことはないのだが,それぞれについての感想を書いてみようと思う.
 まず,大きな違いはセッションを複数たちあげる場合,Poderosaはひとつのウィンドウでタブ形式のように起動することができる,それらのセッションウィンドウを左右に分割したり上下に分割することもできる.PuTTYで複数のセッションをたちあげる場合は,タイトルバーの所で右クリックして[新しいセッション...]とか[セッションの複製]で起動する.起動すると別のウィンドウにセッションがたつ.ここが大きな違いかなと思う.
あと,好き嫌いでいえば
・コピー,ペーストのショートカットがPuTTYのほうがいい:Poderosaはコピー,ペーストが[Alt] + c,[Alt] + vに割り付けられている,[Alt]キーってなんかなじめない,PuTTYは,[Ctrl] + [Insert]と[Shift] + [Insert],このキー割付はエディターとかでもあるので指に親しみやすい.
・ログアウトしたときのお行儀がPoderosaのほうがいい:PuTTYはログアウトすると,セッションごとにウィンドウを開くタイプなので,いきなりウィンドウが閉じてしまう.筆者のデスクトップでこれをやられると,ディスプレイドライバのせいもあるのだろうけど,終了後に不快な線が残る.Poderosaは空のベインがひとつ残る(これがいいのか悪いのかは議論が分かれる?).PoderosaはネットワークエラーでSSHが切れても黙ってウィンドウが閉じてしまうので何が起こったのかわかりにくい(PuTTYは死んだウィンドウが残ってサブウィンドウで“こうなりました”ってのを知らせてくれる).
・Poderosaはログイン情報を覚えていてくれる:PoderosaのSSHパラメータで認証方法をパスワードにすると,Poderosaのアプリケーションを開いている間はパスワードを覚えていてくれる(ホスト側の設定必要).
・Poderosaはscreenアプリケーションで表示が崩れる(screenについては後述):PuTTYでは問題なし?これは設定の問題?defencodingについてはいじってみたが変化なしだった.
・Poderosaはちょっと重い:起動に時間がかかるなど.

こんなところである.

さて,screenについて...
screenはターミナルコンソールで,複数のシェルを使えるようにするアプリケーションである.portなので,

> sudo portinstall screen

とする必要がある.screenをフルに使いまわすにはman screenで調べてほしい.筆者は複数のウィンドウにシェルをたちあげてこっちでエディター,こっちでコンパイルというのにscreenを使う気はちょっとしない.キーボードショートカットが[Ctrl] + a dなどと複雑で,この小さい脳には収まりきらないのだ.そんな複雑な作業をする必要があったら,上記のソフトでセッションを複数たちあげてコピーしたりペーストしたりするだろう.
ただし,screenに一点使える技がある.これはDru Lavigne著,O'Reilly発行の "BSD Hacks" に載っていたものである.
筆者はWindows Vistaのノートパソコンを使って寝転がりながらSSH接続してBSDのマシンをあれこれいじくっている.そうすると,時々長時間寝てしまい.気がつくとノートは深いスリープ(っていうのかしら?休止状態?)に入ってしまい,SSH接続が切れていることがしばしばなのだ,たくさんのportsの更新があってportupgradeしてたりするとかなりいやな気分になる.
そんな時,screenを名前つきで起動し,必要な作業をした後パソコンががりがりいっている間,そのscreenをデタッチすればいいらしい.デタッチってのは“一応離れるけど,頼んだ仕事はやっておいてよ,ログアウトしても”と言う意味(?)らしい.
具体的には,screenを名前つきで起動する
> screen -S hogehoge

hogehogeが名前だが,もっと簡単なAとかでもいいらしい.
画面がリフレッシュされるので,作業を開始する.KDEのインストールとかでもいいだろう.
筆者のBSDマシンはとても非力なのでまだるっこいスクロールがはじまる.
ここでデタッチする.ショートカットは
[Crtl] + a d
すなわち,コントロールキーを押しながらaを押し,その後dを押す.
すると [detach] と出て,そこからはなれたことがわかる.頼んだ仕事は裏でまわっている.後はログアウトしてSSHを切断してもよい.
様子を見たくなったら,別のマシンでもいいホスト上でもいい,ログインして,
> screen -dr hogehoge

と先ほどつけた名前でscreenをたちあげる.するとあら不思議,先ほどの作業していたシェルがまた出てきた.
これは便利だと思う.
もっと最初に知ってればと思った.

てなわけで...

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