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April 27, 2010

FreeNAS で家庭内ファイルサーバー(下)

で,インストールに入るわけだが,一応ここが公式 FreeNAS のページ,って言っているうちに version が 0.7 から 0.7.1 に上がった.USB メモリーでインストールできるようにも書いてあるが,小生の場合うまくいかず, CD に焼いてインストールした.インストール自体はまさにインストールして IP アドレスを設定して(この設定がうまくいっているかどうかはコンソールで作業しているうちに何回かリブートして確かめた方がいい), NIC がきちんと認識されているか確かめて...ぐらいであろう.
前編で書いたように,今回のシステムでは 160 GB の HDD がシステム用なので,スワップに 1 G 割くとして,残りをすべてシステム用にしたいのだが, 159 GB を割り当てるとどうしてもエラーになる.で,結局, 10 MB だかの使わない領域を残してインストールを終了した.
さて,設定だが,データ用のディスクをフォーマットしたりマウント設定しなければならない.ここから少し恒例の見にくいスクリーンショットを混ぜつつ記す.最初に“ディスク | マネージメント”かな?Manage_diskで,右下のプラスマークをクリックしてディスクを追加していく.どうも fake RAID のディスクだと RAID としてのディスクデバイスのほかにベアドライブのデバイス名もでてくるようなので注意が必要だ.Manage_disk_edit編集画面は特に注意することはないだろう.
そうしたら次はマウントポイントの指定かな?正直順番はよく覚えていない.多分大丈夫だと思う.ディスク | マウントポイント | 編集で追加していく.Moutpointここで注意すべきは“マウントポイント名”ってのがマウントしたディレクトリ名になる.ちなみにマウント元のディレクトリは /mnt だ.だから,マウントポイント名に backup って指定するとそのマウントしてディスクの一番上位のディレクトリは /mnt/backup になる.パーティションタイプは説明にあるように素直にデフォルトにしておこう.
あとは,フォーマット?ここは UFS でかたっぱしからやっていこう.システム領域はフォーマットしないように.(あ,できないのかな?)Format
スワップの有効化は,システム | 高度な設定 | スワップ,から.Swap
ここからはサービスの設定.最初に使うサービスとディレクトリ構造を記す.

/mnt - /main - /euda (nfs) - /scan (ftp)
/hiroshi (afp) - /scan (/mnt/main/euda/scan に symlink)
/misae (afp) - /scan (/mnt/main/euda/scan に symlink)
- /backup (for backup 非公開)

最初に ftp の設定. ftp なんてレガシーなんだけど,うちの複合機のスキャナーが ftp でしか画像を吐かない.ので,ユーザー scan とグループ scan を作る.シェルは nologin ホームディレクトリは /mnt/main/euda/scan .ユーザー scan はグループ ftp にも所属させる.ディレクトリも掘っておく. /mnt/main/euda/scan は chown scan:scan なはずだが,現状なぜか root:wheel (謎).パーミッションは 0777 (じゃないとスキャンした人がそのまま画像を置いていくためファイルサーバーが画像だらけになるのでってのもあるし,シムリンク張っているので 0755 とかだと父さん母さんが読めない).Ftp1
サービス | ftp で設定を簡単に. Anonymous ftp ではないので,ローカルユーザーのみにチェックを入れる.Ftp2それから, umask は先に述べたように誰でも書き込み可能なのでみんな 000 にする. chroot はデフォルトでオンになってるかな?あとは癖なんだけど,パッシブモードがふんだんにポート番号を要求するのが納得いかないので 60000 番以上に制限している. ftp はこれでおしまい.
afp .まず,ユーザーを作る.先の画面でグループ macgroup とユーザー hiroshi と misae を作る.各ユーザーは macgroup に所属.ディレクトリ /mnt/main/hiroshi と同 misae を作る.オーナー情報を正しく設定し,パーミッションは 0755 . hiroshi と misae の下に /mnt/main/euda/scan へのシンボリックリンクを張る.
サービス | afp で afp を有効化.ゲストログインは不可. misae は OS9 ユーザーだが, appletalk も必要ないのでその下もチェック.Afp1で,各ユーザーごとに共有ポイントを作っていく.設定したのは名前(ヴォリューム名)とマウントポイントぐらいかな.Afp2
クライアントサイドのオートマウントの設定はここで書いてもいいのだけど,この記事が膨大な長さになる予感がするので,参考にしたサイトのリンクを貼るにとどめる.
あとなんですか? nfs ですか.えーと, nfs もサービス | nfs でサービスを起動.共有ですべての項目を埋めていく.それでOK.Nfs
で, nfs をオートマウントしたい. nfs を導入したのは, Ubuntu で NAS から音楽データを引っ張り出して楽しみたいというのが発端. smb だと rhythmbox で楽しめない.みたいなのだ. smb の autofs もすんなり動かないし...
で, nfs と autofs を組み合わせて...ってこれはほとんど Ubuntu の help サイトを参考にしたのだが,素直には動かなかったので一応記す.最初に autofs パッケージをインストール.
$ sudo apt-get install autofs

その結果生成される /etc/auto.master に以下の一行を追加
/nfs    /etc/auto.nfs --ghost

(ghost オプションがないと動かなかった)
/etc/auto.nfs を作り,そこに以下の一行を加える.
freenas freenas:/mnt/main/euda

/etc/hosts にホスト: freenas と IP アドレスを紐付けるエントリーを追加.
これで再起動すれば, /nfs/freenas に nfs マウントした内容がマッピングされる.このディレクトリ以下に音楽ファイルがあれば rhythmbox でも banshee でも NAS からのデータで音楽が聞けるという寸法.
最後にバックアップディスクも買ったので,その設定を簡単に...
バックアップスクリプトは超簡単. /mnt/main を tgz にして /mnt/backup に吐く.今のところディスクに余裕があるのでスナップショットで rotate してもいいのだが,スクリプト考えるのがわからないか面倒.
#!/bin/sh

tar czvf /mnt/backup/backup.tgz /mnt/main/


これを cron で回す. cron job ってのは設定が面倒くさそうで小生がもっとも忌み嫌うものなのだが, FreeNAS は GUI の画面があるのでデキタ!Cron

以上です.

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